segunda-feira, 27 de junho de 2016

Hans Staden

The german Hans Staden traveled twice to Brazil (1547 and 1550) and reported in a book everything that happened during the period. His book had great impact because of its illustrations, descriptions of rituals antropophagics, animals, plants and exotic customs. For scholars, the book contains information of interest to anthropological, sociological, linguistic and cultural information about the life, customs and beliefs of the natives of the Brazilian coast in the first half of the sixteenthcentury.

On his first trip to Brazil was in Pernambuco state, while in the second Spanish expedition embarked on Diego Sanabis, new Governor of Paraguay. However, his ship was wrecked on the shores of Rio coast. By knowing how to deal with guns, the portuguese striker destined Staden to Fort Bertioga and was defending the fort that the tupinambás (enemies of the Lusitanian) captured.

Staden was captured by an aborigine named Nhaepepô-açu ("Big Pot") and then was given a gift to another called Ipirú-guaçu ("Jaws great"). Once, carried him to the village of Tiquaripe near Angra dos Reis, to see one of his enemies have his head crushed by a ibirapema (tacape executions). Shortly thereafter, saw the body being devoured by the entire tribe, inebriated with liquor before killing roots.

An excerpt of the document Staden when this first arrived in the village of Ubatuba, a prisoner of the Indians:

"[...] saw a small village of seven huts ... They called in Ubatuba. We went to an open beach to the sea. Very close working women in a culture of plant roots, which they called cassava. There were many who drew roots and had them screaming in their language "Aju n pee xé remiurama", ie: "I'm coming, your food ."... They left me with women. Some were in front of me, some behind, dancing and singing a song that, according to his usual sang to the prisoners that they intended to devour. [...] Inside the caiçara rushed in women all over me, punching, arrepelando me a beard, and said in his speech: "X is anama poepika ae! - "With this blow to avenge me by the man who killed your friends."


Staden did everything to convince his captors that he was not an apples (a Portuguese), but rather a mair (French), then ally with them. Achieved at least leave them in doubt. And finally, the tupinambás turned him into a pet that "Big Shark" led like a dog tied to all sides.

Staden arrived to address a boat anchored just offshore to seek asylum. The commander refused, not wanting to create enmity with the Indians. But finally got Staden, another time, a deck friend who took him back to Europe. Staden attributed his survival to prayer, all the time, made with renewed fervor. Anthropologists, however, are better off knowing the rituals of cannibalism, reading Staden, reached another conclusion. Staden did not kill him because it seemed a coward, whose flesh was unworthy of being eaten by a brave tupinambá. It happened Staden who lived eight months among the Indians, the firsthand accounts of the lives of indigenous peoples, with whom he shared habits and customs. Staden, and banning any mention of his account to zoology fantastic, he asked an acquaintance, Dryander, which ensures the accuracy of its content. Historically, Staden was the first to leave in a book a work that has known centuries and became the sources used in the ethnography of South America.

References:

COSTA, Bianca Mandarino. Hans Staden. Pesquisa apresentada ao Curso de Graduação em Museologia. UNIRIO, 2006.

STANDEN, Hans. Duas Viagens ao Brasil. Editora Universidade de São Paulo, livraria Italiaia editora LTDA. 1974.

The Adventures of Hans Staden. Brazil. Available at: <http://educaterra.terra.com.br/voltaire/500br/hans_staden.htm> Access: 8 October

PAULI, Evaldo. "JOURNEY TO BRAZIL, Hans Staden - Overview" 1997. Available at: <http://www.cfh.ufsc.br/~simpozio/Catarinense/Fontes/STADEN.htm> Access: 8 October

Characters. Hans Staden. Ubaweb. Available at: <http://www.ubaweb.com/ubatuba/personagens/index_per_masc.php?pers=hstaden> Access: 8 October


sexta-feira, 17 de junho de 2016

Photography as a historical source



It should be clear that man has always tried to represent the reality around them through drawings and paintings. The darkroom, developed in Renaissance Italy, was an instrument that has helped in the design. This unit formed an image that, through light, entering through a hole where there was a lens that projected an inverted image and sharp object. For many years people worldwide have sought a way to fix this image captured on a surface. However, only in the nineteenth century were developed several techniques to write / record this image.

So, from the invention, by Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre (1787-1851) of the first photographic process called Daguerreotype in January 1839, the photograph captured the interest of many areas of science, since it made possible the recording, using of light, a fragment of the "real", thus putting aside the inaccuracies that could be subject to human observation or drawings and prints made by artists.

However, with respect to the analysis of photography in general, it is necessary to bear in mind that "every picture has its origin from the desire of an individual who found himself motivated to freeze picture on a given aspect of reality in some place and time." (Kossoy, 2009a, p. 36)

The photos keep in its sensitive surface, the unfailing mark of the past which produced and consumed. Were once present memory, next to those who had the guarded and used to collect relics, souvenirs and witnesses. In the process of being contained come retrieve your character presence in a new place, in another context and with a different function. (Mauad, 1996, p. 10)

Probably for this reason, despite the expansion of the concept document to be relatively ancient in history, dating back to the School of Annales, the picture is still facing difficulties to be used by researchers as a historical source. According to Boris Kossoy,

the problem lies precisely in their [the researchers] refusal to accept, analyze and interpret the information when it is not transmitted in a codified system of signs in accordance with traditional canons of written communication. (Kossoy, 2009a, p. 30)

Furthermore, several authors point out that photography is still commonly used only as "illustration to the text," as you can be noticed in the following excerpt from the work of Maria Teresa Bandeira de Mello and Fernando Alves-Pires purpose of the photographs taken by the expeditions sanitarians Oswaldo Cruz Institute:

for a long time historians in general, ignored the iconographic sources as such. Restricted to written documents, they resorted to only in the form of illustrations, often taken as self-evident and self-explanatory, neglecting therefore, what was most significant: its relations with the historical moments in which came to light. (Mello, PIRES-ALVES, 2009, p. 139-179)

Recently this traditional view has been replaced by the notion of photography as a "historical source of a multidisciplinary approach" (Kossoy, 2009b, p. 21), to the extent that actions are developed, which aim to "organize their information, establish appropriate methodologies for research and analysis to decipher their content and, therefore, that the rise of reality." (Kossoy, 2009a, p. 32)

Kossoy explains that there are three essential components for running a photograph: the subject, the photographer and technology. It should be noted also that these elements are part of a process that took place in certain time and space coordinates, which resulted in a final product that is photography. You can then say that is the subject matter (fraction of "real"), the photographer is the author, while the technology is the means (machinery, the photosensitive product, and techniques used for setting the record through light exposure), the three elements together giving rise to the photograph (record a snippet of "real"). Therefore, it is clear that any photograph is the result of human action (Photographer), in a given time and space, chose a subject and to register it, used the resources available technology. (Kossoy, 2009a, p. 37) Kossoy also clarifies that the photographer acts as a "cultural filter" since it is he who selects the fraction of the real to be recorded, arranged for visual detail components of the subject, and uses technological means, these actions will influence the final picture result.

Reference

COSTA, Bianca Mandarino. Fotografias da Comissão Cruls: uma análise da imagem. Monografia de Especialização apresentada à Coordenação do Curso de Pós-Graduação em Preservação de Acervos de Ciência e Tecnologia. Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins. 2010. 101 p.
CARTIER-BRESSON, Anne. Uma nova disciplina: a conservação-restauração de fotografias. In: CADERNOS técnicos de conservação fotográfica. Rio de Janeiro: Funarte, 2004. n. 3.
KOSSOY, Boris. Fotografia & História. Rio de Janeiro: Ateliê editorial. 2009a.
KOSSOY, Boris. Realidades e ficções na trama fotográfica. Rio de Janeiro: Ateliê editorial. 2009b.
MAUAD, Ana Maria. Através da imagem: fotografia e história interfaces. Tempo, Rio de Janeiro, vol. 1, n °. 2, 1996, p. 73-98. Available at: <http://www.historia.uff.br/tempo/artigos_dossie/artg2-4.pdf> Access: 17 September 2010.

MELLO, Maria Teresa Villela Bandeira de; PIRES-ALVES, Fernando. Expedições científicas, fotografia e intenção documentária: as viagens do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (1911-1913). História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, v.16, supl.1, jul. 2009, Available at: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-59702009000500008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt> Access: 17 September 2010.

Women in science

Women in science

The field of study that deals with investigating the scientific and technological phenomena and their relationship with the social context is often called social studies of science. And assumes that "the economic, political and cultural influence on scientific and technological changes, and scientific and technological changes have consequences for society and its environment." (Santos, 2006)

The notion of the construction of scientific knowledge as objective, neutral and universal interpretation gave rise to that science which is produced in a given place at a particular time is the result of a specific historical and social context. With this new approach to learning about the science and its values as the relationship between science and gender (women's participation in scientific activities). (SILVA, 1998, p.11)

For many years women were confined to "know that home was in reading and writing, some basic calculations necessary for the proper functioning of the family economy." (TOSI, 1998, p.379)

Despite this unfavorable scenario, many women have participated in the scientific or technical.

"These women, belonging to nobles or bourgeois classes, [which] had the chance to receive a good education, which allowed overcoming barriers and prohibitions. However, they were relegated to marginal status of assistants or, at best, of collaborating scientists known, often being ignored for posterity." (TOSI, 1998, p.380)

However, there are cases in which women have run through the barriers and gained international recognition. A well-known example is Marie Curie (1867-1934) who together with her husband Pierre Curie carried out research in physics and chemistry, with her husband winning the Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of the field of radioactivity.

Later, Marie won a Nobel Prize in chemistry, this time alone, for his discovery of the chemical elements radium and polonium. Marie also became head of the Physics Laboratory at the Sorbonne with their professional undeniably recognized and valued.

Reference

Referência

SANTOS, Lucy Woellner dos; ICHIKAWA, Elisa Yoshie. Para iniciar o debate sobre o feminino na relação ciência e sociedade. p. 3-23. IAPAR. Londrina. 2006.
SILVA, Elisabeth Bortolaia. Des-construindo gênero em ciência e tecnologia. Caderno Pagu. (10). P.7-20. 1998. Campinas, São Paulo.
TOSI, Lúcia. Mulher e ciência - A Revolução científica, a caça às bruxas e a ciência moderna. In: Cadernos Pagu. (10) pp.369-397. 1998. Disponível em: <http://www.pagu.unicamp.br/files/cadpagu/Cad10/pagu10.14.pdf> Acesso: 23 abr. 2010.

quinta-feira, 16 de junho de 2016

Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) sought a form of painting that speaks for itself, the color he wanted to speak. He understood that the color had the power to convey feeling and emotion of the artist. The observer should call the color and emotion. Definitely wanted to liberate the artistic engagement with reality and liberate the eye of the beholder. For Kandinsky painting only when the subject came free, she would be faithful to what it is: color and media. Through the loose scribbles and shapes, he let out his hand and this created the abstract figures. Kandinsky know the random shapes together to create momentum, weight and balance.


Improvisation 26 (Oars).

Kandinsky add to the skyline and leave forms are floating in space. In the painting chosen, it is evident the feeling passed through the strong colors and the union of shapes, lines and curves without using the three-dimensionality and the submission of the skyline. He also takes the title for not letting the viewer trying to analyze and find out what is the work. The eye of the observer is not forced to try to discover what each shape represents, but feel the emotion passed by the union colors. The painting begins to talk about their own issues, a free theme and engagement with reality.

Reference


Image. Wassily Kandinsky. Improvisation 26 (Oars). 1912. Oil on canvas. 97 x 107.5 cm. Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich, Germany. Available at: <http://www.abcgallery.com/K/kandinsky/kandinsky21.html>

Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) buscava uma forma de pintura que falasse por si mesma, ele queria que a cor falasse. Entendia que a cor tinha o poder de transmitir o sentimento e emoção do artista. O observador deveria ligar a cor à emoção. Queria definitivamente libertar o fazer artístico do compromisso com a realidade e libertar o olho do observador. Para Kandinsky só quando a pintura se libertasse do tema, ela conseguiria ser fiel a aquilo que ela é: cor e suporte. Através dos rabiscos e das formas soltas, ele soltava a mão e com isso criava as figuras abstratas. Kandinsky sabe juntar as formas aleatórias para criar dinamismo, peso e equilíbrio.

Wassily Kandinsky.
Improvisation 26 (Oars).

Kandinsky some com a linha do horizonte e deixa as formas ficam flutuando no espaço. Na pintura escolhida, fica evidente o sentimento passado através da cores fortes e da união de formas, linhas e curvas sem usar a tridimensionalidade e em a submissão da linha do horizonte. Ele também tira o título para não deixar o espectador tentando analisar e descobrir o que é a obra. O olhar do observador não se vê obrigado a tentar descobrir o que representa cada forma, mas sente a emoção passada pela união cores. A pintura começa a falar de suas próprias questões, livre de uma temática e do comprometimento com a realidade.

Referência

Imagem. Wassily Kandinsky. Improvisation 26 (Oars). 1912. Oil on canvas. 97 x 107.5 cm. Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich, Germany.

Disponível em: <http://www.abcgallery.com/K/kandinsky/kandinsky21.html>

Brief history of papermaking



Illustration of procedures for the production of rag paper

The origin of the invention of paper refers to China in the second century AD. However, only in the seventh century, the moors brought the case to Spain and then introduced the western world. With the development of the press in mid-fifteenth century, new manufacturing techniques were developed in order to account for the increasing demand.

The raw material of paper is cellulose obtained from plant fibers. For many centuries, the most used in the manufacture of paper pulp was extracted from rags, linen or cotton which are rich in this substance.

"The roles are strong and durable made from long fibers of flax, cotton or hemp, often derived from rags." (RICKMAN, BALL, 2005, p.103)

The rags were then boiled in a mixture of lime and water in order to remove grease, starch and also soften the cellulose. This mixture of lime and water was an alkaline solution which, by itself, has provided an alkaline reserve to the paper. It was then carried out a mechanical shock to reduce the rags to a pulp. This mixture was sieved by extracting the cellulose fibers that were arrested in the plot of the sieve. Subsequently, this mixture was pressed and dried.

In the eighteenth century, aiming to increase production and reduce costs, new techniques were developed. Pavão lists some of these innovations, for example, the sizing with rosin-alumina which initiated the preparation of papers since the fatty substance previously used was gelatin. It feels like sizing the action of adding adhesive to paper in order impermeable it and make it more suitable for writing. Peacock notes that

"The rosin-alumina, added to the water solution at the time of manufacture, helps to make the fiber dispersion in water, precipitating the adhesive resin on the fibers of the paper and holds the mineral fillers added to the paper and makes the role more tightly. However, their presence is a further contribution to the acidification of paper." (PAVÃO, 1997, p.141)

Another important change in the manufacture of paper was the use of wood pulp cellulose to obtain. This paste is made from the grinding and cooking of wood chips and all substances (lignin, for example) are used in paper production. The change of use of paper obtained by the rag paper made from wood pulp in 1850, marks the beginning of the crisis of acid paper. RICKMAN and Ball argue that "the papers derived from wood pulp are more reactive [...] the greater the amount of untreated wood, the higher its reactivity. (RICKMAN, BALL, 2005, p.104)
However, currently there are methods to remove the harmful substances present in wood pulp leading to production of quality varied roles (roles without any treatment, chemically treated papers among others).

Reference

COSTA, Bianca Mandarino da. Conservação e preservação de fotografias albuminadas. Monografia apresentada à Escola de Museologia da UNIRIO. 81p. 2009
PAVÃO, Luís. Conservação de coleções de fotografia. Lisboa: Dinalivro, 1997.
RICKMAN, Catherine; BALL; Stephen. Conservação de obras de arte em papel: gravuras, desenhos e aquarelas. In: Conservação de coleções / Museums, Libreries and Archives Council; [tradução Maurício O. Santos e Patrícia Souza]. Museologia, Roteiros Práticos 9 – São Paulo: Editora da Universidade de São Paulo. Fundação Vitae. 2005. 
Image. Illustration of procedures for the production of rag paper. Available at: <% 20of% http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_bJ3yHEM7rpQ/Rn3tIES9WUI/AAAAAAAAA58/q5EmfFnwGX4/s1600-h/historia 20papel www.celuloseonline.com.br.gif-> Access: 12 February 2011.