domingo, 5 de março de 2017

Naif art


Authors: Juliana Amado




Rio de Janeiro, I like you, I like this happy people (1988), Lia Mittarakis.
"Naïfs are the anarchist poets of the brush."
(Website of the MIAN)

We will analyze the term naïf as one of the manifestations of popular art, which is defined with small variations of concept, preconceived or not.
"NAIVE: French word meaning 'naive'. See naive art "

"INGENUA ART. Denomination given to the production of artists who live in a sophisticated society and in contact with Arte Erudita but who have not received any professional education or treatment. Strictly speaking, the term is associated with Western artists who translated from the nineteenth century. The color is usually bright and not naturalistic, the perspective is not exact and the general aspect is childish. However, naive artists are not necessarily amateurs or without contact with artistic knowledge. Some artists, extremely sophisticated, have deliberately sought a naïve expression, especially in the twentieth century. Sometimes the expression primitive art has been used incorrectly, as its synonym. See also naive. "(CUNHA, Almir Paredes, Dictionary of Plastic Arts, Rio de Janeiro: EBA / UFRJ, 2005. P. 229)

The author points out that naïve and / or naive artists are mostly those who have not had professional education. However, as he himself explains, it is not a rule. There are artists called naïfs, who are not self-taught, who have had professional treatment and follow this path by choice as a stylistic manifestation. It is important to emphasize that naïve art, since it is generally naive, self-taught and rule-free, has always existed, having only one term designating it, created in the nineteenth century after the emergence of Henri Rousseau in the setting of painting French.

"(...) gesture of aesthetic manifestations not erudite, spontaneous inspiration, self-taught learning and popular themes. It is still an art of complex character, varied and individualized according to each painter who practices it. "(AQUINO, Flavio, In Naïfs Biennial of Brazil 1998.Sesc Piracicaba: São Paulo, 1998-s / p).

"The primitive (...) looks with a highly personal view through the culture he has received, but moving from it, differs also from the scholarly artist for not having an intellectual concept of art and nature formed by elitist values ​​of Western civilization . "(FOTA, Lélia Coelho, In: Biennial Naïf do Brasil 1998. Sesc Piracicaba: São Paulo, 1998).

Both Flavio Aquino and Lélia Coelho Frota characterize the painter Naïf as a self-taught and non-scholar without contact with elitist art, and once again tap the same key used by Cunha: not every naive / naïve artist is self-taught and chooses the naive expression As a form of personal expression.

"The naïve or naive plastic artist is usually an autodidact that expresses itself plastically in an instinctive, spontaneous and original way. He is not preoccupied with concepts, letting his sensibility, his dreamlike reveries, his emotions and the experiences acquired in his socio-cultural environment naturally emerge, registering in a remarkable and peculiar way the fantastic and unusual situations, as well as simple, simple, humorous events And even, tragic. "(NASCIMENTO, Antonio, In Bienal Naïf do Brasil, Sesc São Paulo: Piracicaba, São Paulo, 2000 - s / p).

Comparing the naïf definitions of the four authors, it is noted that in general, they are in agreement. The contract is due to the definitions of the anthropologist popular culture expert, Lélia Coelho Frota, who cites the naïfs as primitive, a term sometimes considered incorrect by Almir Cunha. Accordingly, according to the author, naïf artists are not always isolated from artistic knowledge, and the naïve expression is deliberately sought.

It is observed that all authors are unanimous in asserting that most naive painters are self-taught and learn on the basis of attempts and observation. Due to this, they ended up capturing and transposing to their works the reality and the culture that surrounds them, portraying many times, the cultural habits of the time and the place in which they live. Circling through Pelourinho and Mercado Modelo, both in Salvador-Bahia, it is common to see the sale of paintings of various sizes of a brilliant color, without much concern for perspective, naturalism, and above all, themes related to Bahia and the city from Salvador. The paintings in general, represent Bahianas of round dresses and capoeiristas, most of the time, blacks; And in some cases, the old houses and the slopes of the Pelourinho, without the baianas and the capoeiristas.

In Rio de Janeiro, you can see the sights of the city, as well as the reality of the Cariocas, as shown by the work of the artist Lia Mittarakis "Rio de Janeiro, I like you, I like these happy people" (1988), on display At the International Museum of Naïve Art - MIAN. Such a work shows the Corcovado, the Jockey; the beaches; The cove of Botafogo; The Rio-Niteroi bridge; The Maracanã and the Airport, which do not correspond to reality. The artist selects what is important to her, what in her eyes represent Rio de Janeiro, putting everything in harmony, in the same frame. Apparently, what interests him is to show the viewer a little of each thing that represents the so-called "Marvelous City" in a single work.

_________________________________________________________________

Bibliographic reference:
AMADO, Juliana. A arte naïf e seu contexto na arte popular. Monografia - graduação em museologia. Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, 2009.

ARANTES, Antonio Augusto. O que é cultura popular. Coleção Primeiros Passos. Editora Brasilense, 13° Edição São Paulo, 1998.

Bienal Naïfs do Brasil. Sesc São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, 2000.

CHAVES, Luís. A Arte Popular – aspecto do problema. Portucalense Editora S.A.R.L., Porto – Portugal: 1943.

CUNHA, Almir Paredes. Dicionário de Artes Plásticas. Rio de Janeiro: EBA / UFRJ, 2005.

FINKELSTEIN, Lucien. Brasil Naïf – Arte Naïf: Testemunho e patrimônio da humanidade. 1° ed. Novas Direções, Rio de Janeiro: 2001.

FINKELSTEIN, Lucien; LEREBOURS, Michel – Philippe; THOMPSON, Alisson. Encontros e Reencontros na Arte Naïf: Brasil – Haiti. Ministério das Relações Exteriores: 2005.

FINKELSTEIN, Lucien. Miranda. Imprinta, Rio de Janeiro: 1980

FINKELSTEIN, Lucien. Naïfs Brasileiros de Hoje – 46° Feira do Livro de Frankfurt. Câmara Brasileira do Livro, São Paulo: 1994.

Guia de Museus Brasileiros / Universidade de São Paulo. Comissão de Patrimônio Cultural. – São Paulo: Editora da Universidade de São Paulo: Imprensa Oficial do Estado, 2000. – ( Uspina – Brasil 500 anos)

LUCENA, Armando de. Arte Popular. Empresa Nacional de Publicidade, Lisboa – Portugal: 1942.

Melhoramentos Minidicionário da língua portuguesa. – 1. Ed. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1992

MIRANDA, Danilo de Santos. Bienal Naïf do Brasil 1998. SescPiracicaba: São Paulo, 1994.

STABENOW, Cornelia. Rousseau. Taschen: Köln –Alemanha, 2001.

WERNER, Alfred. Henri Rousseau. Editorial Timun Mas, S.A, Barcelona, 1959.


Outras fontes:

Histórico do Museu Internacional de Arte Naïf, enviado pela equipe do museu.

Folhetos

A. Rosalino: Imagens Universais / organização de César Baía.- Rio de Janeiro: Funarte, CNFCP, 1999. (Sala do Artista Popular; n°79)

Expressão Popular – Coleção Cesar Aché. Centro Cultural Light:2001

Lirismo: pinturas de Barbara Deister / pesquisa e texto de Carla Costa. – Rio de Janeiro: Funarte, CNFCP, 1999 (Sala do Artista Popular, n° 77)

Naïfs do nosso Brasil. Exposição n° 3 – Telmo Carvalho. MIAN: 12 de junho a 5 de setembro de 1999.

Lourdes feliz, Lourdes Ferraz: pinturas / organização e pesquisa de Maria helena Torres.- Rio de Janeiro: Funarte, CNFCP, 1997. (Sala do Artista Popular, n°68)

Os futuros grandes da arte naïf. Exposição n° 1 – Bebeth. MIAN: 21 de maio 14 de julho de 1996.

Os futuros grandes da arte naïf. Exposição n° 5 – Paulina LaksEizirik. MIAN: 22 de maio a 24 de agosto de 1997.

Os futuros grandes da arte naïf. Exposição n° 6 –Helena Coelho. MIAN: 8 de janeiro a 22 de março de 1998.

Internet

D’AMBROZIO, Oscar. Henri Rousseau- o pai da arte naïf. In artCanal.

Disponível em:http://www.artcanal.com.br/oscardambrosio/henrirousseau.htm

DIAS FILHO, Clovis dos Santos. Cultura Popular: arte e artesanato.

Disponível em:http://www.cult.ufba.br/maisdefinições/ CULTURAPOPULAR.pdf

Iracema Arditi

Disponível em:http://Iracema.org/

Museu de ART. BR.

Disponívelem:http://www.museus.art.br/brasil.htm

Museu internacional de Arte Naïf – MIAN.

Disponível em:http.//www.museunaif.com.br/index.asp?cid=1

Olga’sGallery – Henri Rousseau.

Disponível em:http://images.google.com.br/imagres?imgurl=http://www.abcgallery.com/R/rousseau/rousseau10.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.abcgallery.com/R/rousseau/rousseau10.html&usg=_74pobkM--irl5IL7eGavdFAVrGU=&h=700&w=541&sz=54&hl=pt-BR&start=67&um=1&tbnid=sE64c6hFH9a-rM:&tbnh=140&tbnw=108&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dhenri%Brousseau%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Dpt-BR%26lr%3Dlang_pt%26sa%3DN%26start%3D60%26um%3D1

Wikpédia – Henri Rousseau

Disponível em: http://wikpedia.org/wiki/Henri_Rousseau

Wikpédia – José Rodrigues de Miranda.

Disponível em: http://wikpedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Rodrigues de Miranda

Wikpédia – Lista de Museus do Brasil

Disponível em: http://wikpedia.org/wiki/Lista_de_Museus_do_brasil


Revistas / Textos

BAÊTA NEVES, Luiz Felipe. O paradoxo do coringa e o jogo do poder e saber. Rio de Janeiro: Achiamé, 1979.
VELHO, Gilberto. Cultura popular e sociedade de massas: uma reflexão antropológica. Piracema – Revista de artes e cultura. Ano 1 n°1. Brasil, 1993.

Nenhum comentário:

Postar um comentário